…”gram-negative bacteria produce lipopolysaccharides as endotoxins, which activate toll-like receptors on macrophages and other cells, eliciting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Constant stimulation of toll-like receptors leads to damage of vascular endothelial cells and causes blood-clotting abnormalities, eventually resulting in tissue injury, multiple organ dysfunction, and death.”
What role does LPS play in the gut-lung axis dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients? …”the direct invasion of the intestine by SARS-CoV-2 leads to increased intestinal permeability, allowing LPS produced by harmful bacteria to invade the body and stimulate the production of certain cytokines”…
“…all ICU staff and physicians should be familiar with the concept of hemoperfusion in management of critically ill patients. So, hemoperfusion (early application) combined with appropriate antiviral therapies and supportive therapy may be considered as an adjunctive treatment for critically ill COVID-19 patients.”
Secondary infections – most commonly gram-negative urinary tract infections and blood stream infections - complicate as much as 10% of COVID-19 patients in the hospital, increasing the need for oxygen, ICU care and almost doubling the length of stay.